Wednesday, April 23, 2008

TRANSCRIPTION

Transcribe the following terms:

1. PPE - Personal Protective Equipment
2. OGTT - Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
3. FBS - Fasting Blood Sugar
4. OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration
5. LIS - Laboratory Information System
6. TLA - Total Laboratory Automation
7. NIST - National Institute of Standards and Technology
8. CPK - Creatine Phosphokinase, Creatine Kinase
9. stat - immediately, as soon as possible
10. LDH - Lactate Dehydrogenase
11. OCT - Ornithine Carbamoyl Transferase
12. ALP - Alkaline Phosphatase
13. ACP - Acid Phosphatase
14. RBS - Random Blood Sugar
15. GGT - Glucose Tolerance Test

Friday, April 18, 2008

LIPIDS QUIZ

1. This is one food source of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL):
a. Pork fat
b. Vegetable fat
c. Cod liver oil
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

2. The Lieberman Burchardt method for cholesterol makes use of ____ as a dissociating
agent:
a. Methanol
b. Caffeine
c. Tartrate
d. Picrate
e. None of the above

3. The reference method for cholesterol determination:
a. Abel Kendall
b. Schoenheimer
c. Sperry and Webs
d. Bloor
e. None of the above

CATECHOLAMINES QUIZ

1. The two major catecholamines are:
a. Adrenaline and noradrenaline
b. T3 and T4
c. TRH and TSH
d. Insulin and glucagon
e. None of the above

2. The following are the effects of increased catecholamine production, EXCEPT:
a. Increase cardiac output
b. Peripheral vasoconstriction
c. Sweating and pallor
d. Increase in blood pressure
e. None of the above

3. One pathologic clinical significance of increased catecholamine is :
a. Pheochromocytoma
b. Grave's disease
c. Diabetes mellitus
d. Addison's disease
e. None of the above

4. The BEST sample for catecholamine determination is:
a. unhemolyzed, non icteric and non turbid serum
b. detoxified urine
c. whole blood
d. a & b only
e. b & c only
f. a, b, & c

5. The following are physiologic factors affecting catecholamines, EXCEPT:
a. Emotional stress
b. Pain
c. Loud noise
d. Mental stress
e. None of the above

6. The following are end products of catecholamine metabolism, EXCEPT;
a. Norepinephrine
b. Epinephrine
c. Dopamine
d. HVA
e. All of the above
f. a & b
g. a, b, & c

7. The following are steroid hormones, EXCEPT;
a. Testosterone
b. Cortisol
c. Aldosterone
d. Catecholamines
e. None of the above

8. The secretion/production of catecholamines is greatest in what part of the day?
a. In the night
b. In the morning
c. The same all throughout the day
d. At noon
e. None of the above

9. The following are conditions that increase catecholamine concentrations, EXCEPT;
a. Neuroblastoma
b. Essential hypertension
c. Hypothyroidism
d. Pheochromocytoma
e. None of the above

10. Catecholamine concentrations are decreased in:
a. Hyperthyroidism
b. Septicemia
c. Depression
d. Diabetic acidosis
e. Burns

TOXICOLOGY QUIZ

1. These are major routes of drug administration, EXCEPT:
a. Oral
b. Intravenous
c. Intramuscular
d. Rectal
e. None of the abovr

2. This is the major carrier protein of drugs in the circulation:
a. Globulin
b. Albumin
c. TBPA
d. Ferritin
e. None of the above

3. The therapeutic range of a drug is the blood level of the drug that;
a. Cures the disease
b. Gives no side effects
c. Determines the extent of the condition
d. Allows maximum exposure of the patient to the drug
e. None of the above

4. The following are aminoglycosides, EXCEPT:
a. Digoxin
b. Procainamide
c. Quinidine
d. Theohpylline
e. None of the above

5. Trinder’s reagent is for the quantitation of:
a. Acetaminophen
b. Phenobarbital
c. Salicylate
d. Theophylline
e. None of the above

6. The drug dosage given to patients with this condition should be lower than the
therapeutic range:
a. Liver cirrhosis
b. Pneumonia
c. Septicemia
d. Viral influenza
e. None of the above

7. Isopropyl alcohol should NOT be used as a sterilizing agent for ethanol analysis,
because:
a. It may falsely increase obtained values
b. It may falsely decrease obtained values
c. It interferes with the reaction
d. It reacts with the reagents for the determination
e. None of the above

8. The product measured in alcohol determination is:
a. acetylsalicylate
b. LDH
c. NAD+
d. NADH
e. acetaldehyde

9. The major metabolite of marijuana is:
a. heroine
b. benzoylecgonine
c. 9 delta THC
d. phencyclidine

10. The major metabolite of morphine is:

Select from the above choices

ENDOCRINOLOGY QUIZ

1. The posterior pituitary produces these hormones:
a. Oxytocin
b. Epinephrine
c. PTH
d. TSH

2. Hormones are said to be biochemically active when they are:
a. Free
b. Bound to target receptors
c. Bound to albumin
d. Bound to TBG
e. None of the above

3. The glucocorticoid hormones regulates the following processes, EXCEPT:
a. Glucose production
b. Protein metabolism
c. Amino acid formation
d. Fatty acid release
e. None of the above

4. The reabsorption of sodium by the kidney is enhanced by this hormone:
a. aldosterone
b. cortisol
c. estrogen
d. progesterone
e. None of the above

5.The major ovarian hormone is:
a. epistriol
b. estrone
c. estradiol
e. estriol

BLOOD GAS AND TOXICOLOGY QUIZ

I. PROBLEM SOLVING:
A. WRITE THE FORMULA.
B. SHOW YOUR COMPUTATIONS
C. ENCLOSE ALL ANSWERS IN BOXES.

1.WHAT IS THE DISSOLVED CARBON DIOXIDE IF THE CARBONIC ACID IS 1.35 mMOL/L?
2.WHAT IS THE DISSOLVED CARBON DIOXIDE IF THE pCO2 IS 30 mmHg?


II. ESSAY: DISCUSS BRIEFLY BUT CONCISELY:
1. DISCUSS THE PORTER SILBER METHOD.
2 DISCUSS THE DIALYSIS METHOD OF TOTAL T4 PROCEDURE.
3. HOW IS THE CHAIN OF CONFIDENTIALITY MAINTAINED IN DRUG ABUSE SCREENING.

INSTRUMENTATION QUIZ

1. It is migration of charged solutes or particles in an electric field.
2. Refers to the migration of small ions, whereas zone electrophoresis is the migration of charged macromolecules in a porous support medium such as paper, cellulose acetate, or agarose gel film.
3. It is the result of zone electrophoresis and consists of sharply separated zones of a macromolecule (i.e Proteins in Serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and other biologic body fluids and erythrocytes and tissues are the macromolecules of interest in a clinical laboratory)
4. Refers to the migration of charged macromolecules in a porous support medium
5. Earliest medium used; fragile and could easily be damaged; staining were variable due to the different composition of paper
6. Larger samples could be used because of the thick slab created; fragile and perishable
7. A strip composed of a clear plastic backing with a coating of cellulose acetate; size structure of particles can be controlled; can make permanent records; greater resolution and faster separation; when dried materials becomes extremely brittle
8. Derivative of agar; electrically neutral thus no interaction with the sample; relatively porous making separation solely on electric charge; staining and de-staining can be easily done with dilute acetic acid
9. Utlizes protein size as a major factor in the separation process, produces more detailed patterns; highly complex in its preparation
10. Substances being tested in electrophoresis


EMISSION FLAME PHOTOMETRY

1. Method for detection of metal salts, principally Na, K, Li, Ca, Ba.
2. The process incorporated here is atomization or nebulization
3. Most employed burner in flame photometry
4. Measures the intensity of the emitted light
5. Tested substance in flame photometry
6-10 Give five sources of errors

FLUOROMETRY

1. & 2. Give the two most frequently used sources of excitation radiant energy
3. Lamps that are seldom used because they release little energy in the ultraviolet region.
4. Placed between the radiation source and the sample, selects the wavelength that is best absorbed by the solution to be measured
5. Physical energy that occurs when certain compounds absorb EMR
6. Transcribe EMR
7. Use grafting, prisms, or filters for isolation of incident radiation
8. & 9. Two types of fluorescent spectrum
10. Involves the interaction of light with a chemical compound


SPECTROPHOTOMETER

1. A photometer that can measure intensity as a function of the color, or more specifically, the wavelength of light
2. Used to set the display to a 0%T readout when sample compartment is empty and the adopter cover is closed.
3. Selects the desired analytical wavelength
4. Sets the display to 100%T when a cuvet containing a blank reference solution is inserted in the sample compartment
5. Displays the wavelength and the data readings.
6. This mode selects the transmittance, absorbance, concentration, or factor mode
7. Relationship between absorption of light by a solution and the concentration of that solution has been described by ____________
8. Converts transmitted radiant energy into an equivalent amount of electrical energy.
9. Refers to the wavelength outside the band transmitted by the monochromator
10. type of absorption that spectrophotometer use to measure concentration by detecting absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms rather than by molecules.

TURBIDIMETRY AND NEPHELOMETRY

1. Measures the amount of light blocked by particulate matter as light passes through the cuvette
2. Transcribe LASER.
3. Used to quantitatE antigen by analyzing increase in turbidity, as measured by increasing scatter of laser light
4. Obtains uniform scattering of particles and minimizes sample heating.
5. Substance being tested in nephelometry.

Clinical Enzymology Quiz

I. ANSWER AS INDICATED. (No acronyms –transcribe answers)
1._______________________________________ Two examples of hydrolases
2._______________________________________
3._______________________________________ Two examples of transferases
4._______________________________________
5._______________________________________ It is the constant value for a specific enzyme substrate concentration under specified conditions.
6._______________________________________ When the substrate is in excess , this acts as the rate limiting factor.
7._______________________________________ When the enzyme is in excess , this acts as the rate limiting factor.
8._______________________________________ This CK isoenzyme is more specific for the heart.
9._______________________________________ This CK isoenzyme is more specific for the brain.
10._______________________________________ How many isoenzymes does CK have?
11._______________________________________What are the two subunits of CK?
12._______________________________________ What is the optimum pH for enzymatic reaction?
13._______________________________________ What is the optimum temperature for enzymatic reaction?
14._______________________________________ What is the type of inhibitor that competes with the substrates at the binding sites of the enzyme?
15._______________________________________ Give one example of a metallic activator.
16._______________________________________ It is a condition in enzyme assays in which the substrate is 99 X more than expected enzyme concentration.
17._______________________________________ It is half of the maximum velocity.
18._______________________________________ What are the isoenzymes of CK?
19._______________________________________ Transcribe CK.
20._______________________________________ One method for CK determination.

II. ESSAY: ( 5 pts.)
1 Explain the electrophoretic mobility of the CK isoenzymes.

Sunday, April 13, 2008

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

ANSWER TO ENDOCRINOLOGY QUESTIONS

1. D
2. B
3. A
4. D
5. C
6. A
7. A
8. C
9. C
10. A

ANSWERS TO TOXICOLOGY QUESTIONS

1. D
2. B
3. A
4. D
5. C
6. A
7. A
8. C
9. A
10. A

ANSWERS TO CATECHOLAMINES QUESTIONS

1. A
2. E
3. A
4. D
5. E
6. D
7. D
8. B
9. C
10. B

ANSWERS TO LIPID QUESTIONS

1. A
2. B
3. B

ANSWERS TO CARBOHYDRATES QUESTIONS

1. B
2. C
3. C
4. B
5. A

ANSWERS TO INSTRUMENTATION QUESTIONS

1. G
2. B
3. B
4. B
5. A

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