Saturday, September 4, 2010

REVIEW IN VENIPUNCTURE COLLECTION

ANSWER AS INDICATED:( 1 pt.each)

1. Standard angle of entry of needle in venipuncture.
2. Time allowed for application of the tourniquet.
3. Standard gauge of needle used in venipuncture.
4. Rimming is done _____ only to prevent hemolysis.
5. Time to allow the blood to extract serum.
6. The rpm of the centrifuge used for serum and plasma preparation.
7. Time to stand the blood for plasma preparation.
8. Check the patient's site of puncture after how many minutes?
9. Sodium fluoride is ideal for what test?
10.How many minutes should you centrifuge the blood for serum and plasma preparation?

ANSWERS TO REVIEW VENIPUNCTURE COLLECTION

ANSWER AS INDICATED:( 1 pt.each)

1. Standard angle of entry of needle in venipuncture.

15 to 30 degrees angle.

2. Time allowed for application of the tourniquet.

Less than 2 minutes

3. Standard gauge of needle used in venipuncture.

gauge 20-22

4. Rimming is done _____ only to prevent hemolysis.

once or twice

5. Time to allow the blood to clot to extract serum.

15 to 30 minutes

6. The rpm of the centrifuge used for serum and plasma preparation.

2,000 to 2,500 revolutions per minute (rpm)

7. Time to stand the blood for plasma preparation.

None, you do not stand it. You mix blood and anticoagulant immediately to avoid clotting.

8. Check the patient's site of puncture after how many minutes?

3 to 10 minutes

9. Sodium fluoride is ideal for what test?

Glucose test, because it prevents glycolysis simultaneously.

10.How many minutes should you centrifuge the blood for serum and plasma preparation?

5 to 10 minutes.

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR SAMPLE PREPARATION, SERUM AND PLASMA PREPARATION.

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR SAMPLE PREPARATION, SERUM AND PLASMA PREPARATION.

1. Differentiate serum and plasma and whole blood.

2. Differentiate serum from plasma.

3. Name some causes of hemolysis.

4. What is the most preferred specimen?

5. Enumerate the different anticoagulants and their respective anticoagulant to whole blood ration.

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR VENIPUNCTURE

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR VENIPUNCTURE

1. What are the precautions observed in venipuncture?

2. Discuss some complications encountered in venipuncture. How could you minimize these problems?

3. What are the three methods of blood collection? Give a brief description of each.

4. Enumerate the different anticoagulants and the disadvantages and advantages of each.

5. What are the disadvantages and advantages of the vacutainer method of blood collection?

6. Name the different colors employed in the vacutainer method and their corresponding anticoagulant and specific uses.

7. What are the sequence in which tubes are drawn in CC?

Friday, September 3, 2010

ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR SAMPLE PREPARATION, SERUM AND PLASMA PREPARATION

ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR SAMPLE PREPARATION, SERUM AND PLASMA PREPARATION

1. Differentiate serum and plasma and whole blood.

Serum is the supernatant fluid when coagulated blood has been centrifuged, while plasma is the supernatant fluid after anticoagulated blood has been centrifuged. On the other hand, whole blood is composed of both the fluid portion and the cellular elements in blood. Anticoagulant is added to avoid clotting.

2. Differentiate serum from plasma.

Refer to answer no. 1

Additional:

Serum is clearer than plasma because it has less proteins. Serum has NO fibrinogen because it has been converted to fibrin, while plasma has fibrinogen (a protein), aside from albumin and globulin.


3. Name some causes of hemolysis.

There are various causes of hemolysis, Any process that applies extreme agitation or stirring will cause hemolysis. This includes the following:

Repeated rimming
Forceful agitation, shaking or stirring of blood
Squirting the blood into the syringe
Wet materials (water causes hemolysis)
Forcing the blood out of the syringe


4. What is the most preferred specimen?

Serum, because it has less interfering substances.

5. Enumerate the different anticoagulants and their respective anticoagulant to whole blood ratio.

ACD - 0.25 ml per 1 ml blood
4 % Sodium Citrate - 1:16 ratio (blood banking)
Unless specified, ratio of anticoagulant to blood is one part anticoagulant to 4 parts of blood.


ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR VENIPUNCTURE

ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR VENIPUNCTURE

1. What are the precautions observed in venipuncture?

Identify your patient properly.
Avoid hemolysis at all costs because this will cause inaccurate results.
Do not apply the tourniquet longer than necessary.(more than 2 minutes)
Sterilize well in a circular manner to avoid contamination.
Follow the direction of the vein.
Anchor the needle properly to the syringe or adapter before puncturing.
The bevel of your needle should be facing up.
Do not re-use needles to avoid contamination.
Use only sterilized and dry syringes and needles.
Throw all sharps in the sharps container.
Discard your trash properly.
Label your specimen tubes RIGHT AFTER blood collection.
Know the test to be performed before commencing collection.

(READ MORE FROM BISHOP)

2. Discuss some complications encountered in venipuncture. How could you minimize these problems?

Syncope
Edema
Hematoma
HIV
Hepatitis
Thrombophlebitis
Thrombosis
Transfixation

(FOR MINIMIZING PLEASE REFER TO LECTURE NOTES)


3. What are the three methods of blood collection? Give a brief description of each.

Arterial
Capillary
Venipuncture

(REFER TO LECTURE NOTES FOR DESCRIPTIONS)

4. Enumerate the different anticoagulants and the disadvantages and advantages of each.

(REFER TO LECTURE NOTES)

5. What are the disadvantages and advantages of the vacutainer method of blood collection?

You perform multiple collections.
You can collect larger amounts of blood.
You can store the blood.
It is easier to perform.

6. Name the different colors employed in the vacutainer method and their corresponding anticoagulant and specific uses.

Red- no anticoagulant
Blue - citrate
Green -heparin
Lavender - EDTA
Black- oxalates
Gray - fluoride

7. What are the sequence in which tubes are drawn in CC?

RBGLBG

Red, blue, green, lavender, black, gray

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM/QUALITY CONTROL CHART

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM/QUALITY CONTROL CHART

1. Name the sources of quality control sera

2. What are the Westgard Rules? Explain briefly.

3. How do you construct a Levy-Jennings Chart?

4. Differentiate a Gaussian from a non-Gaussian distribution curve.

5. Differentiate a Gaussian Curve from a Levy-Jennings plot.

ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM/QUALITY CONTROL CHART

ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM/QUALITY CONTROL CHART

1. Name the sources of quality control sera.

Pooled sera from left over normal sera
Abbatoir
Commercially prepare control sera


2. What are the Westgard Rules? Explain briefly.

Random errors are indicated by violations of the 1(2S), 1(3S), and R(4S)

1(2S) - one control value exceeds plus, negative 2 SDs.
1(3S) - one control value exceeds plus, negative 3 SDs.
R (4S) - the difference between the highest and the lowerst control values exceeds 4 SDs.

Systematic errors are indicated by violations of 2(2S), X10, 4(1S)

2(2S) - two control values exceeds plus, negative 2 SDs
X10 - 10 consecutive control values are found on one side of the mean, without crossing the mean.
4(1S) - 4 consecutive control values exceeds plus, negative 4 1SD.


3. How do you construct a Levy-Jennings Chart?


A. Solve for the mean
B. Solve for the SD,
C. Solve for the 1,2,3 SDs
D. Construct your QCC.
E. Plot your control values.
F. Interpret the chart making use of the Westgard Rules.


4. Differentiate a Gaussian from a non-Gaussian distribution curve.

The Gaussian curve is a bell-shaped curve while the non-Gaussian curve is a linear curve.



5. Differentiate a Gaussian Curve from a Levy-Jennings plot.

The Levy Jennings plot is an example of a linear curve.

ANSWERS to Review Questions for Calibration of Volumetric Apparatus and Preparation of Solutions

ANSWERS to Review Questions for Calibration of Volumetric Apparatus and Preparation of Solutions


1. How would you prepare a 0.2 N HCL, 0.5 N HCL from 1 NHCL, to a final volume of 30 mL, 50 mL, and 60 mL?

Use the formula C1V1= C2V2

Where C1= 1N HCL
C2= 0.2 N HCL, 0.5 NHCL
V1 = Unknown
V2 = 30 mL, 50 mL, and 60 mL

Substitute properly and solve.

Example:

C1V1 = C2V2,

(1N)(V1) = (0.2 N HCL)(30 mL)

V1 = 0.2 X 30 divided by 1

V1 = 6 mL of 1 N HCL added to 24 mL of distilled water.


2. Give examples of primary standards for acid and base solutions.

refer to Bishop

3. List the requirements of a good primary standard.

It should not be hydroscopic.
It should be 99.9 % pure.
It should have a high molecular weight.


4. What is the most frequently used cleaning solution for glassware?

Potassium dichromate in sulfuric acid.


5. Name two general types of pipets and their corresponding calibrating medium.

To deliver (TD) = calibrating medium is water

To contain (TC) = calibrating medium is mercury


6. How do you read opaque and clear solutions?

Opaque solutions - read at upper meniscus
Clear solutions - read at lower meniscus


7. How do you prepare 0.85 % NaCl solution?

% = W/V X 100

W = (%)(V) over 100

W = (0.85)(100) over 100 (assume the total volume of the solution is one if the volume is not given)

Review Questions for Calibration of Volumetric Apparatus and Preparation of Solutions

Review Questions for Calibration of Volumetric Apparatus and Preparation of Solutions


1. How would you prepare a 0.2 N HCL, 0.5 N HCL, from a 30 mL, 50 mL, and 60 mL aliquot of 1 N HCL?

2. Give examples of primary standards for acid and base solutions.

3. List the requirements of a good primary standard.

4. What is the most frequently used cleaning solution for glassware?

5. Name two general types of pipets and their corresponding calibrating medium.

6. How do you read opaque and clear solutions?

7. How do you prepare 0.85 % NaCl solution?



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