Tuesday, January 31, 2012

Clinical Chemistry 2, Quiz Laboratory, Spectrophotometer, Potassium and Chloride

PLEASE READ TABLE OF SPECS FOR CC2 MIDTERM EXAMS HERE:

Clinical Chemistry 2
Long -Quiz Laboratory
Spectrophotometer, Potassium & Chloride

Name:____________________________________________ Rating__________________
Date:_____________________________________________ Section:_________________

1.____heparin, EDTA, or use serum_______________The best AC for potassium determination. (specify)
2.____serum _________________________________The best sample for chloride determination.(Specify)
3.____cation_________________________________Indicate whether potassium is an anion or cation.
4.____anion_________________________________ Indicate whether chloride is n anion or cation.
5.____intracellular____________________________Indicate whether potassium is intracellular or extracellular.
6.____extracellular___________________________ Indicate whether chloride is intracellular or extracellular.
7.____3.6 to 5.4_mEq/L________________________Normal value for potassium in blood sample
8.____98 to 110 mEq/L ________________________Normal value for chloride in blood sample .
9.____sodium tetraphenyl boron or potassium base reagent__Give a reagent for potassium.
10.____3 ml or 1 ml (1,000 uL)___________________How many mL will you be using for your answer to #9?
11.___Don’t use hemolyzed specimens_____________Give three precautions for potassium.
12.___Separate clot or cellular elements immediately____
13.___Avoid strenuous exercises prior to testing___
14.Give two precautions for chloride determination_____prevent using turbid, icteric or lipemic sample___
15.__avoid contamination from chloride containing substances like sweat, and water_

16.-18. What is the principle of potassium determination .

____Potassium present in the serum reacts with sodium tetraphenylboron forming a colloidal suspension in which the turbidity formed is directly proportional to the concentration of potassium in the sample or specimen._____

17.– 22. What is the principle of chloride determination.

__The chloride present in the serum reacts with mercuric nitrate or mercuric thiocyanate to form mercuric chloride, which is measured spectrophotometrically. The intensity of the color is directly proportional to the concentration of chloride present in the sample or specimen___

23- 28 . What is Beer Lambert’s Law?

The law states that the concentration of an unknown solution is directly proportional to its absorbance and inversely proportional.to its transmittance.

29 – 40. Name the 6 most common electrolytes and give a brief description of each.

Potassium – major intracellular cation
Phosphorus – intracellular anion
Calcium – extracellular cation, important for the clotting prcess
Sodium – major extracellular cation – has active role in water balance
Chloride – extracellular anion – passive role in water balance
Magnesium - intracellular cation

41-45. Give 3 conditions seen in hyperkalemia.

dehydration
shock with tissue hypoxia
diabetic ketoacidosis
massive intravascular or extracorporeal hemolysis
severe burns
violent muscular activity (status epilepticus)
renal failure due to shock

46 – 48. Give 3 conditions found in hyperchloremia.

Dehydration
Renal tubular acidosis
Acute renal and metabolic acidosis
Prolonged diarrhea

49. – 50- What are the glasses used to calibrate the wavelengths of the spectrophotometer.

Holmium glass
Didymium glass

50 – 60. Name the operating features of your Diasys FC Stardust and give the use of each.

Aspirator- aspirates sample
Cell wells- contains cuvettes
Well incubators- for incubation at 37 degrees C
Read-out device- displays readings and processing of equipment
Keypads- to key in selected steps/process, wl selection, units , etc.
Printer – where the final printed results are processed

Answers to Bilirubin Quiz, Review Questions

INDICATE WHETHER

INCREASE B1, INCREASE TB = A
INCREASE B2, INCREASE TB = B
INCREASE B1 & B2, INCREASE TB = C
NONE OF THE ABOVE = D

SHADE THE BOX THAT CORRESPONDS TO THE LETTER OF YOUR CHOICE.

1. hepatitis - C
2. EBF - A
3. Obstruction of the biliary tract - B
4. Hepatic encephalopathy - C
5. Crigler Najjar syndrome -C
6. Reye’s syndrome - C
7. Rotor’ syndrome - C
8. Hemolytic anemia -A
9. HDN - A
10. Post obstructive jaundice - B

Bilirubin Review Questions, Exam Questions

INDICATE WHETHER INCREASE B1, INCREASE TB = A
INCREASE B2, INCREASE TB = B
INCREASE B1 & B2, INCREASE TB = C
NONE OF THE ABOVE = D

SHADE THE BOX THAT CORRESPONDS TO THE LETTER OF YOUR CHOICE.

1. hepatitis
2. EBF
3. Obstruction of the biliary tract
4. Hepatic encephalopathy
5. Crigler Najjar syndrome
6. Reye’s syndrome
7. Rotor’ syndrome
8. Hemolytic anemia
9. HDN
10. Post obstructive jaundice

ANSWERS ARE FOUND HERE.

Sunday, January 29, 2012

Clinical Chemistry 2 Long -Quiz Laboratory Spectrophotometer, Potassium and Chloride

Clinical Chemistry 2

Long -Quiz Laboratory

Spectrophotometer, Potassium & Chloride

Name:____________________________________________ Rating__________________

Date:_____________________________________________ Section:_________________

1. __________________________________________ The best AC for potassium determination. (specify)

2. __________________________________________The best sample for chloride determination.(Specify)

3. __________________________________________Indicate whether potassium is n anion or cation.

4. __________________________________________ Indicate whether chloride is n anion or cation.

5. __________________________________________Indicate whether potassium is intracellular or extracellular.

6. __________________________________________ Indicate whether chloride is intracellular or extracellular.

7. __________________________________________Normal value for potassium in blood sample

8. __________________________________________Normal value for chloride in blood sample .

9. __________________________________________Give a reagent for potassium.

10. __________________________________________How many mL will you be using for your answer to #9?

11. ______________________________________________________________________________Give three precautions for potassium.

12. ______________________________________________________________________________

13. ______________________________________________________________________________

14. Give two precautions for chloride determination___________________________________________________________________

15. ______________________________________________________________________________

16. -18. What is the principle of potassium determination .

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

17. – 22. What is the principle of chloride determination.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

23- 28 . What is Beer Lambert’s Law?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

29 – 40. Name the 6 most common electrolytes and give a brief description of each.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

41-45. Give 3 conditions seen in hyperkalemia.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

46 – 48. Give 3 conditions found in hyperchloremia.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

49. – 50- What are the glasses used to calibrate the wavelengths of the spectrophotometer.

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

50 – 60. Name the operating features of your Diasys FC Stardust and give the use of each.


ANSWERS CAN BE FOUND HERE.

Friday, January 27, 2012

Answers to Enzyme Quiz Review Questions

1. LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (LD)___ Ubiquitous enzyme.
2. CK2MB, AST, LD1,___ List the three cardiac isoenzymes.
3. AMYLASE__ Enzyme primarily tested in acute pancreatitis.
4. 40 DEGREES C__The maximum temperature for enzyme activity to occur normally.
5. 7.4___ The optimum pH for enzyme determinations.
6. .ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (ALP)_List the four(4) post obstructive enzymes.
7. . 5' NUCLEOTIDASE_(5' NT)_
8. . LEUCINE AMINO PEPTIDASE_(LAP)
9. .GAMMA GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE_(GGT)
10. – 12 Give three principles of enzyme data Interpretation.

A. ENZYMES ARE FOUND WITHIN CELLS, SO ANY ELEVATION IN THEIR BLOOD CONCENTRATION WOULD INDICATE CELLULAR DAMAGE OR NECROSIS.
B. NORMAL RESULTS ARE SIGNIFICANT ( DO A SERIES OF TESTS.)
C. INTEGRATE ALL DATA BEFORE DIAGNOSIS, (PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS, OTHER DIAGNOSTIC EXAMS, HISTORY, ETC)

12 - 14. Give the three general methods of determining enzyme activity

A. MEASUREMENT OF ENZYME ACTIVITY
B. MEASUREMENT OF PRODUCT FORMED
C. MEASUREMENT OF DISAPPEARANCE OF SUBSTRATE

15. .GAMMA GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE (GGT)_ The alcoholic marker enzyme.

16-20. Explain the electrophoretic mobility of CK.

IT IS THE MOVEMENT OF THE CK ISOENZYMES BASED ON THEIR CHARGES, SIZE, AFFINITY TO MEDIA AND THE NET CHARGE OF THE ELECTROPHORETIC FIELD. CKBB OR CK1 IS THE FASTEST FOLLOWED BY CK2 OR CKMB AND THEN CK 3 OR CKMM.

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

Quiz, Exam Review Questions, Enzymes

1.____________________________________________ Ubiquitous enzyme.

2.____________________________________________ List the three cardiac isoenzymes.

3.____________________________________________ Enzyme primarily tested in acute pancreatitis.

4.____________________________________________The maximum temperature for enzyme activity to occur normally.

5.____________________________________________ The optimum pH for enzyme determinations.

6. .____________________________________________List the four(4) post obstructive enzymes.

7. .____________________________________________

8. .____________________________________________

9. .____________________________________________

10. – 12 Give three principles of enzyme data Interpretation.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

12 - 14. Give the three methods of determining enzyme activity

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

15. .____________________________________________ The alcoholic marker enzyme.

16-20. Explain the electrophoretic mobility of CK.

READ THE ANSWERS HERE.

Friday, January 20, 2012

Clinical Chemistry Reviewer: Bilirubin Exam Questions

INDICATE WHETHER INCREASE B1, INCREASE TB = A

INCREASE B2, INCREASE TB = B

INCREASE B1 & B2, INCREASE TB = C

NONE OF THE ABOVE = D

WRITE THE CAPITAL LETTER OF YOUR CHOICE.

1.Obstruction of the biliary tract

2. Hepatic encephalopathy

3. EBF

4. Liver cirrhosis

5. Gilbert's Syndrome

6. HDN

7. Viral hepatitis

8. Infectious hepatitis

9. Stones in biliary duct

10. Hemolytic anemia

ANSWERS WILL BE POSTED NEXT WEEK.

Monday, January 16, 2012

Answers to Transcription

TRANSCRIPTION: ( 1 PT. EACH)

1. FBS -Fasting Blood Sugar

2. NPO - Non Per Orem (Nothing by Mouth)

3. nm - nanometers

4. wl -wavelength

5. mg/dL -milligrams per deciliter

6. mmol/L - millimoles per liter

7. B1 - Bilirubin 1

8. OGTT- Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

9. mL - milliliters

10. stat - statim ( immediately)



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