Monday, May 9, 2016

Answers to Thyroid Function Test, Case Analysis 4


CASE ANALYSIS 4

      AN APPARENTLY HEALTHY 33 YR-OLD WOMAN UNDERGOES THYROID TESTING WITH THE FOLLOWING RESULTS:  FT4 = 1.2 ng/dL, s-TSH = 15 uU/mL.  NO GOITER OR ANY OTHER ABNORMALITY IS NOTED.  THE PHYSICIAN IS CONCERNED, BUT DECIDES TO FOLLOW THE PATIENT FOR EVERY SIX MONTHS.  SIX MONTHS LATER THE PATIENT’S FT4= 1.1 ng/dL, s –TSH = 25 uU/mL.

QUESTIONS

      1.  WHAT CLINICAL STATE IS THE PATIENT APPARENTLY EXHIBITING? DEFEND YOUR ANSWER?

      Secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism.

      2.  WHY IS THERE CONCERN OVER THESE RESULTS?

      There may  be dysfunction in the anterior pituitary.

      3.  WHY WOULD MOST LABORATORY THYROID TESTS NOT BE USEFUL IN THIS CASE?

      Because the master gland is affected.

      4.  WHAT LABORATORY TEST WOULD BE USEFUL? WHY?

      Stimulation tests because it would determine what particular organ is dysfunctional.


Thyroid Function Test, Case Analysis


CASE ANALYSIS 4

      AN APPARENTLY HEALTHY 33 YR-OLD WOMAN UNDERGOES THYROID TESTING WITH THE FOLLOWING RESULTS:  FT4 = 1.2 ng/dL, s-TSH = 15 uU/mL.  NO GOITER OR ANY OTHER ABNORMALITY IS NOTED.  THE PHYSICIAN IS CONCERNED, BUT DECIDES TO FOLLOW THE PATIENT FOR EVERY SIX MONTHS.  SIX MONTHS LATER THE PATIENT’S FT4= 1.1 ng/dL, s –TSH = 25 uU/mL.

QUESTIONS

      1.  WHAT CLINICAL STATE IS THE PATIENT APPARENTLY EXHIBITING? DEFEND YOUR ANSWER?

      2.  WHY IS THERE CONCERN OVER THESE RESULTS?

      3.  WHY WOULD MOST LABORATORY THYROID TESTS NOT BE USEFUL IN THIS CASE?

      4.  WHAT LABORATORY TEST WOULD BE USEFUL? WHY?

CHECK ANSWERS HERE

Saturday, April 16, 2016

Answers to Thyroid Function Test (TFT), Case Analysis 3


CASE ANALYSIS 3

      A 59 YEAR OLD MAN WHO HAS BEEN DIAGNOSED WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME SHOWED SYMPTOMS OF HYPOTHERMIA, COOLNESS IN THE EXTREMITIES, DECREASED BLOOD PRESSURE AND PULSE, FATIGUE, AND DELAY IN REFLEX TIME.  A THYROID PROFILE WAS ORDERED WITH THE FOLLOWING RESULTS:

LABORATORY FINDINGS

      FT4 = 4.0
      s.-TSH = 1.0 uU/mL

QUESTIONS

      1.  FROM THE CASE HISTORY AND THE LABORATORY DATA, WHAT IS A LIKELY DIAGNOSIS?

      Possibly euthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but since s-TSH is normal, it might be borderline case or a physiological factor is present.

      2.  WHAT ADDITIONAL LABORATORY TEST/S WOULD BE APPROPRIATE?

      FT3, TT3, Stimulation tests, TBG, or perform a delta check (repeat tests)

      3.  WHAT ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CONCERNING THE PATIENT WOULD BE HELPFUL IN INTERPRETING RESULTS?

      Patient’s history, surgical procedures done, drugs taken

      4.  IS TREATMENT FOR THYROID DISORDER INDICATED?

      Observe first for a few weeks and wait for additional tests and delta checks.


Thyroid Function Test TFT), Case Analysis 3


CASE ANALYSIS 3

      A 59 YEAR OLD MAN WHO HAS BEEN DIAGNOSED WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME SHOWED SYMPTOMS OF HYPOTHERMIA, COOLNESS IN THE EXTREMITIES, DECREASED BLOOD PRESSURE AND PULSE, FATIGUE, AND DELAY IN REFLEX TIME.  A THYROID PROFILE WAS ORDERED WITH THE FOLLOWING RESULTS:

LABORATORY FINDINGS

      FT4 = 4.0
      s.-TSH = 1.0 uU/mL

QUESTIONS

      1.  FROM THE CASE HISTORY AND THE LABORATORY DATA, WHAT IS A LIKELY DIAGNOSIS?
 
      2.  WHAT ADDITIONAL LABORATORY TEST/S WOULD BE APPROPRIATE?
      3.  WHAT ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CONCERNING THE PATIENT WOULD BE HELPFUL IN INTERPRETING RESULTS?

      4.  IS TREATMENT FOR THYROID DISORDER INDICATED?


FOR TFT CASE ANALYSIS ANSWERS CLICK HERE.

Monday, April 11, 2016

Answers to Thyroid Function Case Analysis 2 - Questions


TFT CASE ANALYSIS 2

      1. A 41 YR OLD WOMAN COMPLAINED OF INCREASED SWEATING OVER THE PREVIOUS 3 MONTHS.  SHE ALSO STATED THAT SHE ALWAYS SEEMED NERVOUS AND HAD HEART PALPITATIONS AND HEAT INTOLERANCE.  SHE LOST 12 POUNDS OVER THE PAST 3 WEEKS AND HAD NONCRAMPING DIARRHEA.  ON EXAMINATION, HER SKIN WAS WARM AND MOIST, SHE HAD A PROMINENT STARE, AND SHE HAD TACHYCARDIA AT 140 BEATS PER MINUTE.  HER THYROID GLAND WAS DIFFUSELY ENLARGED WITH A SUGGESTION OF NODULARITY.

LABORATORY FINDINGS

      TT4 = 21.2 ug/dL ( 273 nmol/L)
      THBR RATIO = 2.0
      s-TSH = NONE DETECTED
      FT4I = 42.4 ng/dL ( 546 pmol/L)

QUESTIONS

      1. WHAT IS THE MOST PROBABLE CAUSE OF THESE SYMPTOMS AND LABORATORY RESULTS?

Hyperthyroidism with goiter

      2.  WHAT ADDITIONAL LABORATORY TESTING WOULD BE HELPFUL IN CONFIRMING THE DIAGNOSIS?

TT3 and FT3

      3.  WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE s- TSH TEST?

It is the most sensitive test to confirm hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism

      4.  WHAT CAUSES THE DISORDER?

Insufficient Iodine in the diet, dysfunctional thyroid gland


Thyroid Function Case Analysis 2 - Questions



CASE ANALYSIS 2

      1. A 41 YR OLD WOMAN COMPLAINED OF INCREASED SWEATING OVER THE PREVIOUS 3 MONTHS.  SHE ALSO STATED THAT SHE ALWAYS SEEMED NERVOUS AND HAD HEART PALPITATIONS AND HEAT INTOLERANCE.  SHE LOST 12 POUNDS OVER THE PAST 3 WEEKS AND HAD NONCRAMPING DIARRHEA.  ON EXAMINATION, HER SKIN WAS WARM AND MOIST, SHE HAD A PROMINENT STARE, AND SHE HAD TACHYCARDIA AT 140 BEATS PER MINUTE.  HER THYROID GLAND WAS DIFFUSELY ENLARGED WITH A SUGGESTION OF NODULARITY.

LABORATORY FINDINGS

      TT4 = 21.2 ug/dL ( 273 nmol/L)
      THBR RATIO = 2.0
      s-TSH = NONE DETECTED
      FT4I = 42.4 ng/dL ( 546 pmol/L)

QUESTIONS

      1. WHAT IS THE MOST PROBABLE CAUSE OF THESE SYMPTOMS AND LABORATORY RESULTS?

      2.  WHAT ADDITIONAL LABORATORY TESTING WOULD BE HELPFUL IN CONFIRMING THE DIAGNOSIS?

      3.  WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE s- TSH TEST?

      4.  WHAT CAUSES THE DISORDER?



Saturday, April 9, 2016

Answers to Thyroid Function Test Case Analysis


ANSWERS - CASE ANALYSIS 1

Given results of patient:

                    Patient                                  Reference
      T4, Total (S) 7.0 ug/dl                         5 - 11.5
      T3 resin uptake (S) 19%                     25 - 35
      T3, Total (S) 134 ng/dl                       100 - 215
      Free thyroxine index (FTI) 4.3            6 - 11.5
      TSH (S) 22.0 uU/ml                            0.7 - 7.0
      Antithyroglobulin Ab. Pos. (1:640)    Neg. Antimicrosomal Ab. Pos. (1:5120)     Neg. Cholesterol (S) 230 mg/dl                   140 - 225
      (S = analyzed in serum specimens)

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS:

1.      What does the low T3Uptake mean?

There are many TBG with active present in the sample.

2.      How would you interpret the results?

The patient may be a pregnant woman suffering from hypothyroidism. The RT3U is low indicating increased TBG, which could be seen in pregnancy. The increased TSH could indicate hypothyroidism, because TSH acts as a confirmatory test for thyroid function.

Thyroid Function Test (TFT) Case Analysis


Laboratory Test Results: Given results of patient:

                    Patient                                  Reference
      T4, Total (S) 7.0 ug/dl                         5 - 11.5
      T3 resin uptake (S) 19%                     25 - 35
      T3, Total (S) 134 ng/dl                       100 - 215
      Free thyroxine index (FTI) 4.3            6 - 11.5
      TSH (S) 22.0 uU/ml                            0.7 - 7.0
      Antithyroglobulin Ab. Pos. (1:640)    Neg. Antimicrosomal Ab. Pos. (1:5120)     Neg. Cholesterol (S) 230 mg/dl                   140 - 225
      (S = analyzed in serum specimens)

QUESTIONS

1.      What does the low T3Uptake mean?

2.      How would you interpret the results?

  CLICK HERE FOR ANSWERS TO TFT QUESTIONS.


Monday, February 29, 2016

Correct Answers to Electrolytes Review Questions


ANSWERS

CHOICES FOR NUMBERS 1– 10

A.    POTASSIUM
B.     SODIUM
C.    CHLORIDE
D.    INORGANIC PHOSPHATE
E.     NOT IN THE LIST
           
           1.  The major intracellular cation = A
  1. The major extracellular anion. = C
  2. The major intracellular anion. = D
  3. The major extracellular cation. = B
  4. Oxalate is not recommended as an anticoagulant because it chelates this ion. = E (CALCIUM)
  5. The primary ion concerned with cardiac contractility. = A
  6. The ion involved actively in plasma osmolality = B
  7. This ion yields decreased values when the patient has NOT fasted. - D
  8. This anion is DIRECTLY involved in blood pH maintenance. = E (BICARBONATE)
  9. It has a passive function in water electrolyte balance. =  C


Clinical Chemistry 2 Exam Questions on Electrolytes


CHOICES FOR NUMBERS 1– 10

A.    POTASSIUM
B.     SODIUM
C.    CHLORIDE
D.    INORGANIC PHOSPHATE
E.     NOT IN THE LIST
           
            1. The major intracellular cation
  1. The major extracellular anion.
  2. The major intracellular anion.
  3. The major extracellular cation.
  4. Oxalate is not recommended as an anticoagulant because it chelates this ion.
  5. The primary ion concerned with cardiac contractility.
  6. The ion involved actively in plasma osmolality
  7. This ion yields decreased values when the patient has NOT fasted.
  8. This anion is directly involved in blood pH maintenance.
  9. It has a passive function in water electrolyte balance.

CLICK HERE FOR ANSWERS.

SEARCH ENGINE

Google
 

COPYRIGHT

Except for the outside links, printing and copying of the articles contained herein should cite this site as the source. For commercial purposes, the permission of the author should be sought first. You can leave a comment in any of the posts. Thank you.