Friday, November 16, 2012

DIAGNOSTIC QUIZ IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 2



               ANSWER AS INDICATED (1 pt. Each)


  1. ___________________________________  How many times do you rim the clotted blood before you centrifuge?
  2. ___________________________________  How many minutes should you apply the tourniquet?
  3. ___________________________________  The ideal specimen for BUA
  4. ___________________________________  The normal value of blood BUA.
  5. ___________________________________   The conversion factor for creatinine.
  6. ___________________________________   The normal value of creatinine.
  7. ___________________________________  The pH of normal blood.
  8. ___________________________________  Synonym for absorbance.
  9. ___________________________________  Common sterilizing agent .
  10. ___________________________________   The major carrier protein.
  11. ___________________________________  The fasting hours for BUN.
  12. ___________________________________  A system of units in reporting measurements which is recognized internationally.
  13. ___________________________________   The basic component of all steroid hormones.
  14. ___________________________________   Method that separates substances based on their electrical charges.
  15. ___________________________________   The simplest form of lipids.

TRANSCRIBE: ( 1 pt. Each)

  1. FFA
  2. LIS
  3. NADH
  4. TB
  5. Ccr
  6. OGTT
  7. RBS
  8. BUA
  9. BUN
  10. mg%

CASE ANALYSIS: (10 pts.)

  1. You are required to collect sample for creatinine determination.
Outline COMPLETE  instructions that you would give the patient in this particular case.


Tuesday, September 4, 2012

Specimen Collection and Spectrophotometer Review Questions Exams


IDENTIFICATION:


1. ________________________________________The machine that measures light absorbed and transmitted as an index of unknown concentration
2. ________________________________________Your answer to #1 has to be warmed up for how many minutes?
3. ________________________________________The range of visible light.
4._________________________________________The old unit for wavelength.
5._________________________________________ Law that states that the concentration of a solution is directly proportional to the light absorbed and inversely proportional to light transmitted.
6._________________________________________  Synonym for analytical cell.
7. ________________________________________   Formula for ratio of standard to unknown.
8.__________________________________________The distance between the peak and the trough.
9.__________________________________________ Relationship of color intensity with concentration of solution.
10._________________________________________ Relationship of depth with concentration of solution.
11._________________________________________ The supernatant fluid after clotted blood has been centrifuged.
12._________________________________________ Term for the person who performs #13.
13. _________________________________________ A process wherein a needle is introduced into a vein to obtain blood.
14. _________________________________________ This provides radiant energy in the form of visible or non-visible light that may pass through the monochromator.
15.__________________________________________This isolates the wavelength of interest.


Wednesday, August 22, 2012

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 3 CASE ANALYSIS ENDOCRINOLOGY TOXICOLOGY REVIEW QUESTIONS


IV. CASE ANALYSIS: (10 pts.)

A 32 YR. OLD FEMALE PATIENT COMPLAINED OF DIZZINESS, DYSPNEA AND NAUSEA. SHE HAD RED RASHES ALL OVER HER BODY, AND HER BREATH WAS FRUITY.

THE LAB RESULTS WERE:
:
      FT3 - 30 ng/dL
      FT4 - 2 ng/dL
      TSH - normal
      WCC – 5,100/ mm3
      RCC – 5, 113, 100/ mm3
      Total cholesterol – 1.87 mmol/L
      Triglycerides – 1.3 mmol/L
      Glucose = 3.8 mmol/L
      Hemoglobin = 150 mg/dL
      Hematocrit 52 vol%

QUESTIONS FOR CASE ANALYSIS: (10 pts.)

1. WHAT FURTHER TESTS WOULD YOU RECOMMEND? DEFEND YOUR ANSWER.
2. WHAT WOULD BE THE MOST LIKELY DIAGNOSIS? DEFEND YOUR ANSWER.

V. PROBLEM (5 PTS. EACH)

1. WHAT IS THE HALF OF A DRUG WITH AN ORIGINAL CONCENTRATION OF 500 mg/dL, AND IS REDUCED 50 mg/dL FOR EVERY 30 MINUTES.
2. SOLVE FOR THE HALF-LIFE OF PARACETAMOL WITH AN ORIGINAL CONCENTRATION OF 600 mg/dL, AND WHICH HAS BEEN REDUCED TO 400 mmol/L AFTER 120 MINUTES.

VI. TRANSCRIPTION: (1 pt.)
DAS
ET
TDM
D-9THC
NSAID
HL
NADH
EMIT
ELISA
ANS

FOR ANSWERS CLICK ON THIS LINK.

Clinical Chemistry 3 Endcrinology Review Questions- Midterms


Answer as indicated. Illegible answers are considered wrong.
I.                   Identification:  (1 pt. each)

1.      _______________________________________________  The  time specified for a drug to be reduced to ½ of its original concentration.
2.      _______________________________________________  It is considered as the master gland.
3.      _______________________________________________  The major binding protein of cortisol.
4.      _______________________________________________ The more potent thyroid hormone.
5.      _______________________________________________  The test that measures the available binding sites of TBG.
6.      _______________________________________________   The major binding protein for thyroid hormones.
7.      _______________________________________________  It is an invagination of the Rathke’s pouch.
8.      _______________________________________________  This test makes use of high frequency sound waves to determine the organ dysfunction.
9.      _______________________________________________ This is the reagent that separates T4 from the bound.
10.  _______________________________________________   The product  of metabolism of alcohol in the liver.

         ANSWERS FOUND IN THIS LINK.

Friday, August 3, 2012

Clinical Chemistry 3 Endocrinology-Toxicology Exams Review Questions

Clinical Chemistry 3 Endocrinology-Toxicology Exams

1.       The process called when the unbound portion of medication moved from higher drug concentration(blood stream) to lower drug concentration( tissues)  until the balance reach between two areas is called _____________________________________________

2.        When the patent on a specific pharmacologic agent expires, other companies are free to manufacture the drug and market it under their own name called ________________________

3.        The time required for the concentration of the drug to decrease by 50% is called___________________

4.       Prolong use of one or more drugs may stimulate the formation of more of  particular enzyme systems by the liver is a process known as _____________________________

5.       The action of (chemical  drug) _______________________ are to blocked the amino acid incorporation into the growing protein chain thereby lowering the amount of protein manufactured and causing the bacteria to misread the genetic code, resulting in the production of “incorrect proteins”.

6.       The action of  ( drug) ________________________ is to lowered the heart’s ability to conduct an electric current and its contraction decreases resulting to cardiac rhythm stabilizes.

7.       ___________________________(class of drug) act by blocking the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin by the presynaptic nerve endings.

8.       The active ingredients of aspirin is _____________________________

9.       The response of any patient to drug treatment is highly _______________ and variable one depending on age, physical condition, genetic makeup, patients differ in response  to the same medication
10.   _________________________ are substances  in the blood that cross react with antibody to digoxin due to expansion of the blood volume ,increase in blood pressure, acromegaly, renal impairment ,liver disease,  pregnancy which disappear from circulation 24 h after delivery
11.   The net effect of the high protein binding and the uptake of tissues is a low level of _____________________________  in the circulation

12.    ________________________________ is a salt which is quickly absorbed into the circulation after oral admin that is used for the treatment of the of manic-depressive (bipolar illness).

13.    __________________________is an assay technique that has the ability to measure amount of parent drug and metabolites simultaneously, allowing quantitation of all significant contributors to the therapeutic effect.
14.    ________________________________ of urine is often utilized for emergency treatment of salicylate toxicity.

15.    _________________________  is a significant metabolite of the drug theophylline in newborns and small children, monitoring for the presence and amount of this metabolite can be useful.

16.    As with all TDM, sampling time must be consistent and the most preferred specimen is the ___________________________________, collected at the end of the dosing interval.

17.   One of the most prominent gene families that affect drug metabolism is the _____________________   family. It is an enzyme within the mixed function oxidase  system . It encodes a family of liver enzymes that metabolizes many drugs.

18.   The biochemical pathway responsible for a large portion of drug metabolism is the _________________________system. The basic function of this system involves taking hydrophobic substances and, through a series of enzymatic reactions, converting them into    

19.    __________________________substances facilitating easier absorption into the tissues and elimination by the kidneys

20.   ______________________________________ involves the analysis, assessment, and evaluation of circulating concentrations of drugs in serum, plasma, or whole blood. The purpose of these actions is to ensure that a given drug dosage produces maximal therapeutic benefit and minimal toxic adverse effects.


Wednesday, March 21, 2012

ENZYMOLOGY - ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

MATCH COLUMN B,C,& D WITH COLUMN A.

COLUMN A

1.AST - Aspartate Amino Transferase
2.ALT - Alanine Amino Transferase
3.CPK - Creatine PhosphoKinase
4.ACP - Acid Phosphatase
5.ALP - Alkaline Phosphatase
6.GGT - Gamma Glutamyl Transferase
7.CHS - Cholinesterase
8.AMS - Amylase
9.LPS - Lipase
10.LDH - Lactate Dehydrogenase

COLUMN B

A. BESSEY, LOWRY BROCK
B. SZASZ
C. CHROMOGENIC
D. WACKER ET AL
E. REITMAN AND FRANKEL
F. ELLMAN
G. BENEDICTS
H. KING ARMSTRONG
I. TANZER AND GILVARG
J. CHERRY CRANDALL
K. NOT IN THE LIST

COLUMN C

A. 5-35 U/L
B. 8-40 U/L
C. 6,000-12,000 U/L
D. F= up to 25 U/L
E. 60-160 U/L
F. M=90-190 U/L
G. 0.5- 1.9 U/L
H. 35-90 U/L
I. F= UP TO 130 U/L
J. M = up to 130 U/L
K. NOT IN THE LIST

COLUMN D

A. M.I.
B. HEPATITIS
C. ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS
D. PROSTATIC CANCER
E. MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY
F. PESTICIDE POISONING
G. ACUTE PANCREATITIS
H. CHRONIC PANCREATITIS
I. MYASTHENIA GRAVIS
J. OSTEOMALACIA
K. NOT IN THE LIST

ANSWERS WILL BE POSTED ON JUNE. SORRY FOR THE DELAY.

ANSWERS:

COLUMN A COLUMN B COLUMN C COLUMN D

1. AST - Aspartate Amino Transferase - E, B, A
2.ALT - Alanine Amino Transferase - E, A, B
3.CPK - Creatine PhosphoKinase - I, I, E
4.ACP - Acid Phosphatase - A, H,/ G, D
5.ALP - Alkaline Phosphatase - A, H,/ F, I, J
6.GGT - Gamma Glutamyl Transferase - B, D, C
7.CHS - Cholinesterase - F, C, F
8.AMS - Amylase - C, E, G
9.LPS - Lipase - J, K, H
10.LDH - Lactate Dehydrogenase - D, H, A, B



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