Monday, December 20, 2010

Answers to Transcription

1. TRANSCRIPTION: ( 1 PT. EACH)

1. FBS -
8. RBS
2. NPO
9. mmol/L
3. RBS
10. NADPH
4. stat
11. nm
5. cc 12. mg %
6. QCP 13. mEq/L
7. mL 14. mg/dL



Sunday, October 3, 2010

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 1 EXAM REVIEW QUESTIONS

PROBLEM SOLVING :

1. WRITE DOWN FORMULA 1ST.
2. SHOW COMPUTATIONS.
3. ENCLOSE ANSWERS IN BOXES.

ATOMIC WEIGHTS:

Na = 23 H = 1 S = 32
Cl= 35.5 O = 16

1. If you weigh 10 g NaCl solution and dissolve it in 500 ml of diluent. ( 5 pts. each)

A. What is the Molarity?
B. What is the Normality?
C. What is the percent solution?

2. What is the Molarity of a 1 N H2SO4 solution? ( 5 pts.)
3. What is the dilution if you add 0.25 ml of serum to 6.0 ml of diluent? ( 5 pts.)
4. How would you prepare 1:5 serum dilution? ( 5 pts.)
5. How would you prepare a 0.85 % NaCl solution? (5 pts.)
6. You are asked to prepare 200 ml of the following standard concentrations from a 30 mg/dL standard stock solution: Tabulate volume of solute and solvent and also dilution. ( 5 pts. each)

A. 5 mg/dL C. 15 mg/dL
B. 10 mg/dL D. 20 mg/dL
E.25 mg/dL


7. Construct a Levey-Jennings chart based on the following data:
(use a graphing paper) ( 10 pts.)

Control values standard values unknown values

Day 1 3.2 mmol/L 5.4 mmol/L 6.7 mmol/L
Day 2 4.5 mmol/L 2.6 mmol/L 4.2 mmol/L
Day 3 4.0 mmol/L 5.0 mmol/L 3.8 mmol/L
Day 4 3.0 mmol/L 3.5 mmol/L 5.0 mmol/L
Day 5 4.2 mmol/L 2.5 mmol/L 6.7 mmol/L
Day 6 3.5 mmol/L 5.5 mmol/L 5.5 mmol/L
Day 7 4.5 mmol/L 6.0 mmol/L 5.2 mmol/L
Day 8 4.1 mmol/L 5.5 mmol/L 6.7 mmol/L
Day 9 4.3 mmol/L 3.6 mmol/L 5.4 mmol/L
Day 10 3.0 mmol/L 5.2 mmol/L 4.6 mmol/L
Day 11 4.1mmol/L 4.4 mmol/L 2.7 mmol/L
Day 12 6.5 mmol/L 2.6 mmol/L 5.2 mmol/L
Day 13 4.0 mmol/L 5.0 mmol/L 4.8 mmol/L
Day 14 2.8 mmol/L 5.5 mmol/L 5.0 mmol/L
Day 15 4.2 mmol/L 2.5 mmol/L 7.7 mmol/L
Day 16 5.5 mmol/L 5.5 mmol/L 2.5 mmol/L
Day 17 7.5 mmol/L 7.0 mmol/L 3.2 mmol/L
Day 18 3.1 mmol/L 5.5 mmol/L 2.7 mmol/L
Day 19 4.3 mmol/L 4.6 mmol/L 5.4 mmol/L
Day 20 5.2 mmol/L 5.2 mmol/L 3.6 mmol/L


Based on the constructed CHART: ( 10 pts.)

1. Determine if the control values are “in control” or “out of control”
2. Are there any Westgard Rules violated? If there are, encircle with red ink the violations.
3. If there are violations, Identify whether “trend” or “shift”.
4. What appropriate measures could be adapted to correct the error?


ESSAY : ANSWER CONCISELY BUT BRIEFLY. ( 5 PT. each)

1.DISCUSS EACH OF THE PROCESSES INVOLVED IN QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM
2.DISCUSS THE UNIVERSAL PRECAUTION.
3.DISCUSS ONE SPECIFIC WAY IN WHICH YOU CAN PERSONALLY ENSURE THE RELIABILITY OF YOUR RESULTS.


1. TRANSCRIPTION: ( 1 PT. EACH)

1. FBS 8. RBS
2. NPO 9. mmol/L
3. RBS 10. NADPH
4. stat 11. nm
5. cc 12. mg %
6. QCP 13. mEq/L
7. mL 14. mg/dL


Saturday, September 4, 2010

REVIEW IN VENIPUNCTURE COLLECTION

ANSWER AS INDICATED:( 1 pt.each)

1. Standard angle of entry of needle in venipuncture.
2. Time allowed for application of the tourniquet.
3. Standard gauge of needle used in venipuncture.
4. Rimming is done _____ only to prevent hemolysis.
5. Time to allow the blood to extract serum.
6. The rpm of the centrifuge used for serum and plasma preparation.
7. Time to stand the blood for plasma preparation.
8. Check the patient's site of puncture after how many minutes?
9. Sodium fluoride is ideal for what test?
10.How many minutes should you centrifuge the blood for serum and plasma preparation?

ANSWERS TO REVIEW VENIPUNCTURE COLLECTION

ANSWER AS INDICATED:( 1 pt.each)

1. Standard angle of entry of needle in venipuncture.

15 to 30 degrees angle.

2. Time allowed for application of the tourniquet.

Less than 2 minutes

3. Standard gauge of needle used in venipuncture.

gauge 20-22

4. Rimming is done _____ only to prevent hemolysis.

once or twice

5. Time to allow the blood to clot to extract serum.

15 to 30 minutes

6. The rpm of the centrifuge used for serum and plasma preparation.

2,000 to 2,500 revolutions per minute (rpm)

7. Time to stand the blood for plasma preparation.

None, you do not stand it. You mix blood and anticoagulant immediately to avoid clotting.

8. Check the patient's site of puncture after how many minutes?

3 to 10 minutes

9. Sodium fluoride is ideal for what test?

Glucose test, because it prevents glycolysis simultaneously.

10.How many minutes should you centrifuge the blood for serum and plasma preparation?

5 to 10 minutes.

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR SAMPLE PREPARATION, SERUM AND PLASMA PREPARATION.

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR SAMPLE PREPARATION, SERUM AND PLASMA PREPARATION.

1. Differentiate serum and plasma and whole blood.

2. Differentiate serum from plasma.

3. Name some causes of hemolysis.

4. What is the most preferred specimen?

5. Enumerate the different anticoagulants and their respective anticoagulant to whole blood ration.

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR VENIPUNCTURE

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR VENIPUNCTURE

1. What are the precautions observed in venipuncture?

2. Discuss some complications encountered in venipuncture. How could you minimize these problems?

3. What are the three methods of blood collection? Give a brief description of each.

4. Enumerate the different anticoagulants and the disadvantages and advantages of each.

5. What are the disadvantages and advantages of the vacutainer method of blood collection?

6. Name the different colors employed in the vacutainer method and their corresponding anticoagulant and specific uses.

7. What are the sequence in which tubes are drawn in CC?

Friday, September 3, 2010

ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR SAMPLE PREPARATION, SERUM AND PLASMA PREPARATION

ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR SAMPLE PREPARATION, SERUM AND PLASMA PREPARATION

1. Differentiate serum and plasma and whole blood.

Serum is the supernatant fluid when coagulated blood has been centrifuged, while plasma is the supernatant fluid after anticoagulated blood has been centrifuged. On the other hand, whole blood is composed of both the fluid portion and the cellular elements in blood. Anticoagulant is added to avoid clotting.

2. Differentiate serum from plasma.

Refer to answer no. 1

Additional:

Serum is clearer than plasma because it has less proteins. Serum has NO fibrinogen because it has been converted to fibrin, while plasma has fibrinogen (a protein), aside from albumin and globulin.


3. Name some causes of hemolysis.

There are various causes of hemolysis, Any process that applies extreme agitation or stirring will cause hemolysis. This includes the following:

Repeated rimming
Forceful agitation, shaking or stirring of blood
Squirting the blood into the syringe
Wet materials (water causes hemolysis)
Forcing the blood out of the syringe


4. What is the most preferred specimen?

Serum, because it has less interfering substances.

5. Enumerate the different anticoagulants and their respective anticoagulant to whole blood ratio.

ACD - 0.25 ml per 1 ml blood
4 % Sodium Citrate - 1:16 ratio (blood banking)
Unless specified, ratio of anticoagulant to blood is one part anticoagulant to 4 parts of blood.


ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR VENIPUNCTURE

ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR VENIPUNCTURE

1. What are the precautions observed in venipuncture?

Identify your patient properly.
Avoid hemolysis at all costs because this will cause inaccurate results.
Do not apply the tourniquet longer than necessary.(more than 2 minutes)
Sterilize well in a circular manner to avoid contamination.
Follow the direction of the vein.
Anchor the needle properly to the syringe or adapter before puncturing.
The bevel of your needle should be facing up.
Do not re-use needles to avoid contamination.
Use only sterilized and dry syringes and needles.
Throw all sharps in the sharps container.
Discard your trash properly.
Label your specimen tubes RIGHT AFTER blood collection.
Know the test to be performed before commencing collection.

(READ MORE FROM BISHOP)

2. Discuss some complications encountered in venipuncture. How could you minimize these problems?

Syncope
Edema
Hematoma
HIV
Hepatitis
Thrombophlebitis
Thrombosis
Transfixation

(FOR MINIMIZING PLEASE REFER TO LECTURE NOTES)


3. What are the three methods of blood collection? Give a brief description of each.

Arterial
Capillary
Venipuncture

(REFER TO LECTURE NOTES FOR DESCRIPTIONS)

4. Enumerate the different anticoagulants and the disadvantages and advantages of each.

(REFER TO LECTURE NOTES)

5. What are the disadvantages and advantages of the vacutainer method of blood collection?

You perform multiple collections.
You can collect larger amounts of blood.
You can store the blood.
It is easier to perform.

6. Name the different colors employed in the vacutainer method and their corresponding anticoagulant and specific uses.

Red- no anticoagulant
Blue - citrate
Green -heparin
Lavender - EDTA
Black- oxalates
Gray - fluoride

7. What are the sequence in which tubes are drawn in CC?

RBGLBG

Red, blue, green, lavender, black, gray

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM/QUALITY CONTROL CHART

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM/QUALITY CONTROL CHART

1. Name the sources of quality control sera

2. What are the Westgard Rules? Explain briefly.

3. How do you construct a Levy-Jennings Chart?

4. Differentiate a Gaussian from a non-Gaussian distribution curve.

5. Differentiate a Gaussian Curve from a Levy-Jennings plot.

ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM/QUALITY CONTROL CHART

ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM/QUALITY CONTROL CHART

1. Name the sources of quality control sera.

Pooled sera from left over normal sera
Abbatoir
Commercially prepare control sera


2. What are the Westgard Rules? Explain briefly.

Random errors are indicated by violations of the 1(2S), 1(3S), and R(4S)

1(2S) - one control value exceeds plus, negative 2 SDs.
1(3S) - one control value exceeds plus, negative 3 SDs.
R (4S) - the difference between the highest and the lowerst control values exceeds 4 SDs.

Systematic errors are indicated by violations of 2(2S), X10, 4(1S)

2(2S) - two control values exceeds plus, negative 2 SDs
X10 - 10 consecutive control values are found on one side of the mean, without crossing the mean.
4(1S) - 4 consecutive control values exceeds plus, negative 4 1SD.


3. How do you construct a Levy-Jennings Chart?


A. Solve for the mean
B. Solve for the SD,
C. Solve for the 1,2,3 SDs
D. Construct your QCC.
E. Plot your control values.
F. Interpret the chart making use of the Westgard Rules.


4. Differentiate a Gaussian from a non-Gaussian distribution curve.

The Gaussian curve is a bell-shaped curve while the non-Gaussian curve is a linear curve.



5. Differentiate a Gaussian Curve from a Levy-Jennings plot.

The Levy Jennings plot is an example of a linear curve.

ANSWERS to Review Questions for Calibration of Volumetric Apparatus and Preparation of Solutions

ANSWERS to Review Questions for Calibration of Volumetric Apparatus and Preparation of Solutions


1. How would you prepare a 0.2 N HCL, 0.5 N HCL from 1 NHCL, to a final volume of 30 mL, 50 mL, and 60 mL?

Use the formula C1V1= C2V2

Where C1= 1N HCL
C2= 0.2 N HCL, 0.5 NHCL
V1 = Unknown
V2 = 30 mL, 50 mL, and 60 mL

Substitute properly and solve.

Example:

C1V1 = C2V2,

(1N)(V1) = (0.2 N HCL)(30 mL)

V1 = 0.2 X 30 divided by 1

V1 = 6 mL of 1 N HCL added to 24 mL of distilled water.


2. Give examples of primary standards for acid and base solutions.

refer to Bishop

3. List the requirements of a good primary standard.

It should not be hydroscopic.
It should be 99.9 % pure.
It should have a high molecular weight.


4. What is the most frequently used cleaning solution for glassware?

Potassium dichromate in sulfuric acid.


5. Name two general types of pipets and their corresponding calibrating medium.

To deliver (TD) = calibrating medium is water

To contain (TC) = calibrating medium is mercury


6. How do you read opaque and clear solutions?

Opaque solutions - read at upper meniscus
Clear solutions - read at lower meniscus


7. How do you prepare 0.85 % NaCl solution?

% = W/V X 100

W = (%)(V) over 100

W = (0.85)(100) over 100 (assume the total volume of the solution is one if the volume is not given)

Review Questions for Calibration of Volumetric Apparatus and Preparation of Solutions

Review Questions for Calibration of Volumetric Apparatus and Preparation of Solutions


1. How would you prepare a 0.2 N HCL, 0.5 N HCL, from a 30 mL, 50 mL, and 60 mL aliquot of 1 N HCL?

2. Give examples of primary standards for acid and base solutions.

3. List the requirements of a good primary standard.

4. What is the most frequently used cleaning solution for glassware?

5. Name two general types of pipets and their corresponding calibrating medium.

6. How do you read opaque and clear solutions?

7. How do you prepare 0.85 % NaCl solution?



Tuesday, August 31, 2010

Answers to Review Questions in Pipetting

1. Give the reasons why the thumb is not used in pipetting.

The thumb should not be used because, it is more convenient to use the index finger. You can manipulate the pipette properly and easily.

2. Convert the following milliliters to microliters.

5 ml - 5,000 uL
20 ml - 20,000 uL
0.05 ml - 50 uL
100 ml - 100,000 uL
0.025 ml - 25 uL

3.Name sources of error in pipetting.

Broken tips can reduce the total volume TV) of the pipet.

Not wiping the sides of the pipet before delivering will add to the TV.

Dirty and contaminated pipets can affect the test reaction.

Reading at the lower meniscus for opaque solutions instead of the upper meniscus and vice versa.

Improper pipetting will lead to unreliable results.

Review Questions in Pipetting

1. Give the reasons why the thumb is not used in pipetting.

2. Convert the following milliliters to microliters.

5 ml
20 ml
0.05 ml
100 ml
0.025 ml

3.Name sources of error in pipetting.

ANSWERS to Review Questions- Spectrophotometry

1. State Beer's law

The concentration of the solution is directly proportional to the absorbance and inversely proportional to the transmitted light.

2. What is the relationship between the intensity of color of a solution to its concentration?

The intensity of color of a solution is directly proportional to its concentration.

3. What is the formula in solving the Cu?

Cu = Au X Cs/ As

Where: Cu -Concentration of the unknown
Au -Absorbance of the unknown
Cs -Concentration of the standard
As -Absorbance of standard

4. What are the other methods in computing for your unknown concentration?

a. Ratio of standard to known, using the formula in No. 3
b. Absorptivity value
c. Standard curve

5. Give the types of wavelength and the ranges by which they occur.

Ultraviolet (UV) - Below 350 nm
Visible - 350 to 800 nm
Infrared (IR) - above 800 nm

6. List the specific colors for each wavelength.

Blue - 475 nm
Green - 510 nm
Yellow - 570 nm

7. List and describe briefly the basic components of the spectrophotometer.

Light source- provides a continuous source of light.

Entrance slit - prevents entry of extraneous light.

Monochromator - selects the wavelength of choice in reading the unknown.

Exit slit - purifies and intensifies the light entering the cuvette.

Cuvette - contains the unknown solution.

Detector - detects the light absorbed or transmitted and converts it to a reading.

Readout device or digital display window - reflects the readings or concentration of the unknown solution.

Review Questions- Spectrophotometry

1. State Beer's law
2. What is the relationship between the intensity of color of a solution to its concentration?
3. What is the formula in solving the Cu?
4. What are the other methods in computing for your unknow concentration?
5. Give the types of wavelength and the ranges by which they occur.
6. List the specific colors for each wavelength.
7. List and describe briefly the basic components of the spectrophotometer.

Tuesday, August 3, 2010

Questions for Endocrinology and Toxicology

I. ESSAY: DISCUSS BRIEFLY BUT CONCISELY:

1. DISCUSS THE PORTER SILBER METHOD. ( 5 PTS.)
2 DISCUSS THE DIALYSIS METHOD OF TOTAL T4 PROCEDURE.
( 5 PTS.)
3. HOW IS THE CHAIN OF CONFIDENTIALITY MAINTAINED IN DRUG ABUSE SCREENING? ( 5 PTS.)


II. MATCHING TYPE: ( 1 PT.EACH)

MATCH COLUMN A WITH COLUMN B

CHOICES:

A. HYPOTHYROIDISM
B. HYPERTHYROIDISM


1. Muscle weakness
2. Amenorrhea
3. Goiter
4. Dry skin
5. Brittle nails
6. Constipation
7. Cold Intolerance
8. Heat intolerance
9. Tremors
10. Profuse bleeding


III. PROBLEM SOLVING: ( 5 pts.)

1. WHAT IS THE HALF LIFE OF A DRUG WITH AN ORIGINAL CONCENTRATION OF 500 mg IF IT WAS REDUCED TO 400 mg AFTER AN HOUR.


IV. TRANSCRIPTION ( 1 PT. EACH)

1. OGTT
2. 9-THC
3. VMA
4. HVA
5. FBS
6. ALT
7. DHEA
8. DTL
9. PRL
10. ASC


Sunday, July 25, 2010

Quality Assurance Exam Questions

Essay:

1. Discuss the steps in a Quality Control Chart Preparation.
2. Discuss the 4 major processes in Quality Assurance Program.
3. Explain the Westgard Rules and their indications.

WATCH OUT FOR THE ANSWERS NEXT WEEK.

Thursday, July 15, 2010

Problem Solving: Molarity, Normality, Percent Solutions

PROBLEM SOLVING :

1. WRITE DOWN FORMULA.
2. SHOW COMPUTATIONS.
3. ENCLOSE ANSWERS IN BOXES.

ATOMIC WEIGHTS:

Na = 23 H = 1 S = 32
Cl= 35.5 O = 16

1. If you weigh 5 g NaCl solution and dissolve it in 1000 ml of diluent. ( 5 pts. each)

A. What is the Molarity?
B. What is the Normality?
C. What is the percent solution?

2. What is the Molarity of a 0.5 N H2SO4 solution? (5 pts.)
3. What is the dilution if you add 0.75 ml of serum to 3.0 ml of diluent? ( 5 pts.)
4. How would you prepare 1:20 serum dilution? (5 pts.)
5. How would you prepare a 0.5 % NaCl solution? (5 pts.)
6. You are asked to prepare 200 ml of the following standard concentrations from a 20 mg/dL standard stock solution: Tabulate volume of solute and solvent and also dilution. ( 5 pts. each)

A. 2 mg/dL C. 8 mg/dL
B. 4 mg/dL D. 10 mg/dL
E. 15 mg/dL

PARTIAL ANSWERS ARE FOUND IN THIS POST

Tuesday, July 13, 2010

ANSWERS TO IDENTIFICATION: Basic Questions

ANSWERS TO IDENTIFICATION: Basic Questions

1. The supernatant fluid when clotted blood has been centrifuged. - SERUM
2. The supernatant fluid when anti-coagulated blood has been centrifuged.- PLASMA
3. Reference method for electrolyte determination.- ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODE
4. A process wherein a needle is introduced into a vein to obtain blood.- VENIPUNCTURE
5. Main function is water electrolyte balance.- SODIUM
6. How many minutes do you centrifuge the blood for serum preparation? - 5 TO 10 MINUTES
7. It is the precision and accuracy of a method.- RELIABILITY
8. Normal anion-gap value. - 8 to 12 mEq/L
9. The normal pH of serum.- 7.35 to 7.45
10. The most common sample for clinical chemistry - SERUM

Saturday, June 26, 2010

Clinical Chemistry Basic Questions

I. IDENTIFICATION: ( 1 PT. EACH)

1. The supernatant fluid when clotted blood has been centrifuged.
2. The supernatant fluid when anti-coagulated blood has been centrifuged.
3. Reference method for electrolyte determination.
4. A process wherein a needle is introduced into a vein to obtain blood.
5. Main function is water electrolyte balance.
6. How many minutes do you centrifuge the blood for serum preparation?
7. It is the precision and accuracy of a method.
8. Normal anion-gap value.
9. The normal pH of serum.
10. The most common sample for clinical chemistry.


Sunday, June 13, 2010

Clinical Chemistry Reviewer in Drugs Testing and Toxicology

II. MATCHING TYPE. Match the following physical and psychological effect to the substances of abuse. Choices: A - AMPHETAMINE, B- COCAINE, C- MARIJUANA

A. alertness
B. impairment of motor skills
C. reduce of feeling of fatigue
D. dizziness
E. loss of appetite
F. dryness of mouth
G. time perception altered
H. reaction time impaired
I. hallucinations
J. euphoria
K. blurred vision
L. paranoia
M. hyperactivity
N. oral communication skills diminished
O. vasoconstriction and elevated heart rate


Saturday, June 5, 2010

Endocrinology Exam for CC3

ESSAY:

1. DISCUSS HOW THE BODY RESPONDS TO LOW T3 AND T4 CONCENTRATIONS.

2. DISCUSS THE RIA TEST FOR TOTAL T4.


Sunday, May 30, 2010

Exams in Laboratrory Math

PROBLEM SOLVING:

1. WRITE DOWN FORMULA 1ST.
2. HOW COMPUTATIONS.
3. ENCLOSE ANSWERS IN BOXES.

1. What is the Normality of a 10 % NaCl solution? ( 5 pts.)
2. What is the Molarity of a 2 N H2SO4 solution? ( 5 pts.)
3. What is the dilution if you add o.50 ml of serum to 6.5 ml of diluent?
4. How would you prepare 1:10 serum dilution? ( 5 pts.)
5. How would you prepare a 0.85 % NaCl solution? (5 pts.)
6. Construct a Levey-Jennings chart based on the following data:
(use a graphing paper) ( 5 pts.)

Control values/ standard values/ unknown values

Day 1 3.2 mmol/L 5.4 mmol/L 6.7 mmol/L
Day 2 4.5 mmol/L 2.6 mmol/L 4.2 mmol/L
Day 3 4.0 mmol/L 5.0 mmol/L 3.8 mmol/L
Day 4 3.0 mmol/L 3.5 mmol/L 5.0 mmol/L
Day 5 4.2 mmol/L 2.5 mmol/L 6.7 mmol/L
Day 6 3.5 mmol/L 5.5 mmol/L 5.5 mmol/L
Day 7 4.5 mmol/L 6.0 mmol/L 5.2 mmol/L
Day 8 4.1 mmol/L 5.5 mmol/L 6.7 mmol/L
Day 9 4.3 mmol/L 3.6 mmol/L 5.4 mmol/L
Day 10 3.0 mmol/L 5.2 mmol/L 4.6 mmol/L
Day 11 4.1mmol/L 4.4 mmol/L 2.7 mmol/L
Day 12 6.5 mmol/L 2.6 mmol/L 5.2 mmol/L
Day 13 4.0 mmol/L 5.0 mmol/L 4.8 mmol/L
Day 14 2.8 mmol/L 5.5 mmol/L 5.0 mmol/L
Day 15 4.2 mmol/L 2.5 mmol/L 7.7 mmol/L
Day 16 5.5 mmol/L 5.5 mmol/L 2.5 mmol/L
Day 17 7.5 mmol/L 7.0 mmol/L 3.2 mmol/L
Day 18 3.1 mmol/L 5.5 mmol/L 2.7 mmol/L
Day 19 4.3 mmol/L 4.6 mmol/L 5.4 mmol/L
Day 20 5.2 mmol/L 5.2 mmol/L 3.6 mmol/L


Based on the constructed CHART: ( 5 pts.)

1. Determine if the control values are “in control” or “out of control”
2. Are there any Westgard Rules violated? If there are, encircle with red ink the violations.
3. If there are violations, Identify whether “trend” or “shift”.
4.What appropriate measures could be adapted to correct the error?

Wednesday, May 5, 2010

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 3- Essay Questions

Discuss briefly but concisely the following topics.

1. The negative feedback mechanism of glucose
2. The chain of confidentiality in drug testing.
3. The principle of the OGTT.
4. The side effects of marijuana.

Saturday, March 20, 2010

Review Questions in Health Economics

I. IDENTIFICATION: Answer as indicated. ( 1 pt. each)

  1. _________________________________ A type of good that you would buy more when your income increases.
  2. _________________________________ The point at which the supply specifically meets the demand.
  3. _________________________________ A type of tax upon special and particular products with the purpose of decreasing the demand.
  4. _________________________________ It is the method of acquiring revenue by the government to finance government projects.
  5. _________________________________ Transcribe CDC.
  6. _________________________________ Transcribe GNP
  7. _________________________________ Transcribe GDP.
  8. _________________________________ The process in which a taxpayer fails to pay his annual tax dues.
  9. _________________________________ One exception to the GSIS compulsory membership.
  10. _________________________________The Act promulgated in 1997 for retirement benefits for GSIS members.

Wednesday, February 24, 2010

New Questions Next Week

Watch out for new questions next week.


Sunday, January 31, 2010

CC2 TABLE OF SPECIFICATIONS - MIDTERM EXAMS: FEBRUARY 2, 2009

LECTURE - TOPICS & PERCENTAGES

1. LFT - 30 %
2. BGA- 30 %
3. AUTOMATION - 20 %
4. ELECTROLYTES - 20 %

TYPE OF EXAM

1. MULTIPLE CHOICE
2. PROBLEM SOLVING
3. ESSAY
4. TRANSCRIPTION
5. IDENTIFICATION

LECTURE -TOTAL NUMBER OF ITEMS = 130



LABORATORY MIDTERM EXAMS


ALL EXPERIMENTS PERFORMED

LABORATORY - TOTAL NUMBER OF ITEMS = 50

WHAT TO BRING:

1. PERMITS
2. CALCULATORS - STRICTLY NO BORROWING
3. 2 BLACK PENS
4. GREEN MARKER
5. 2 BLUE BOOKS
6. LABORATORY MANUALS FOR SUBMISSION

COME IN COMPLETE UNIFORM


Tuesday, January 26, 2010

Laboratory Instrumentation Quiz

TEST I – Multiple Choice.

Choices for nos 1-5:
a. Pre-analytical
b. Analytical
c. Post-analytical

1. Exposed reagent strips
2. Outdated set of protocols
3. Illegible request forum
4. QNS
5. COC not properly followed

6. The resolving power of a microscope refers to its ability to
a. Refract light
b. Clearly show detail
c. Produce an enlarged image
d. Increase an object’s apparent size
e. All of these

7. What is the standard length of the draw tube of a microscope?
a. 10 cm
b. 160 mm
c. 1.4 dm
d. 3.5 inches
e. None of the above

8. If the image remains visible after the exchange of objectives, the lenses are said to be
a. Parfocal
b. Partentive
c. Parcentered
d. A & C
e. None of the above

9. What substances are best visualized using polarized light?
a. Birefringent substances
b. Doubly refractile substances
c. Substances that can refract light in two directions
d. A & C
e. A, B & C

10. Which is not true about the transmission electron microscope?
a. It is used to study viruses
b. It shows a detailed structure of larger microbes
c. Ultrathin sections of the specimen must be prepared
d. It provides a better view of the surface of even small microorganisms
e. Makes use of electron beams to produce contrast



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